Thursday, July 19, 2012

Responsive Design: Basics

Creating a default layout

The first step of this tutorial is obviously to create a HTML page. I chose to make a simple HTML5 page with only a header image, a title, and some text. Copy the following code and paste it into a file named index.html.


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
 
<head>
 <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Cats Who Code demo</title>
 <link href="style.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" media="screen">
 <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width; initial-scale=1.0; maximum-scale=1.0;">
</head>
 
 
<body>
 <div id="container">
  <header class="ma-class-en-css">
   <h1 id ="logo"><a href="#">Cats Who Code</a></h1>
  </header>
        
  <div id="content">
         <h2>Paris, France</h2>
         <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce a ligula massa. Donec consequat, risus nec viverra condimentum, elit velit dignissim dui, id congue sapien leo tincidunt est. Mauris consectetur tempus lorem id aliquet. Proin eu faucibus massa. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. In magna ligula, ornare sed posuere faucibus, consequat ac lacus. Fusce sodales fermentum nibh, a imperdiet nisi bibendum eget. Donec gravida iaculis sapien eu consectetur. Curabitur id augue augue. Nam mauris urna, suscipit eget faucibus sit amet, mollis vitae felis. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Mauris ipsum lectus, imperdiet id aliquam nec, vulputate vitae mauris. Integer gravida, neque eu placerat egestas, urna metus bibendum nisl, quis congue felis velit id diam. Quisque non tortor at turpis facilisis placerat quis sed felis. Ut eget ipsum dolor, id lacinia leo. Vivamus vitae blandit libero. Integer ultricies gravida leo quis lobortis. Morbi ultrices risus vulputate magna dignissim sed ultricies arcu tristique. Sed non facilisis sapien.</p>

   <p>Integer faucibus, augue vitae vulputate sodales, tellus tellus vulputate tortor, in iaculis ipsum orci vitae libero. Vestibulum laoreet accumsan erat vel pretium. Ut turpis elit, ultricies id accumsan non, condimentum feugiat neque. Nam ut erat urna, a porta augue. Donec vel porttitor magna. Cras eget tortor eget ante malesuada sodales sed a leo. Fusce sit amet cursus sem. Nulla aliquet accumsan ante sit amet condimentum. Morbi varius porta sapien nec iaculis. In gravida velit at nulla imperdiet varius.</p>
        </div><!-- #content -->

  <footer>A demo by <a href="http://www.catswhocode.com">CatsWhoCode</a></footer>
 </div><!-- #container -->
</body>
</html>

Once done, we have to add a stylesheet to our index.html page. The following code is the basic styling for the page. Paste it into a file named style.css.


*{
 /* On a production site, use a real reset instead of this! */
 margin:0;
 padding:0;  
}            
    
body{
 background:#f5f5f5;
 font-family:"Lucida Grande", Arial;
 font-size:13px;
 line-height:21px;
 color:#444;  
}     

p{
 margin:15px 0;
}              

h2{
 margin-top:20px;
}

#container{
 background:#fff;
 border-left:1px #ddd solid;
 border-right:1px #ddd solid;
 border-bottom:1px #ddd solid;
 width:600px;
 margin:0 auto;
}  

header h1#logo a{
 text-indent:-9999px;
 display:block;
 width:600px;
 height:82px;
 background:url(image-med.jpg) no-repeat 0 0;
}             

#content{
 width:95%;
 margin:0 auto;
}

footer{
 text-align:center;
 width:100%;
 display:block;    
 font-size:11px;
} 
Right now, if you look to your index.html page through your web browser, you’ll see something the result. Nothing spectular, right? We're getting there...

@media screen and (min-width:1200px){
 #container{
  width:1100px;
 }  
 
 header h1#logo a{
  width:1100px;
  height:150px;
  background:url(image.jpg) no-repeat 0 0;
 }                          
 
}

Using CSS3 media queries to make it responsive to screen resolutions


If you had a look to your index.html page with a screen resolution bigger than 800*600, you might find the layout is really small. So, what about allowing large screens to display a bigger version, while still using the small version for people with lower resolutions?
This is what CSS3 media queries can do for you. Open your style.css file and paste the code below at the end of the file:

@media screen and (max-width:767px){
 #container{
  width:320px;
 } 
 
 header h1#logo a{
  width:320px;
  height:44px;
  background:url(image-small.jpg) no-repeat 0 0;
 }                           
 
}


Now, have a look at index.html again: The layout is indeed bigger. Horizontally resize the window size… The site switches back to the small layout. How great is that?
As you can see, there’s nothing complicated at all in implementing this technique. @media screen tells the browser this applies only for screens, because we don’t want to resize anything for print. And and (min-width:1200px) specifies that the screen must have a 1200px minimum width. If these requirements are met, then the code within the parenthesis is taken into consideration by the browser, and redefines previous styles.
Now that we created a bigger version for bigger screens, what about a very small version for mobiles? Paste this code into style.css and you’re done.

Images


Images always play an important part of a website. So, let’s add an image to our website layout. Re-openindex.html and insert the following code just before the first closing </p>


<img src="notre-dame.jpg" alt="Photo by Wlappe">
If you have a look to index.html with a big screen, no problem. But if you resize the window horizontally…it wont look nice. It will be out of place.



The solution to that problem is quite simple: As we resize the website layout, we have to resize images as well. The max-width CSS property is here to help.
Insert the following on your style.css file:


img {
 max-width:570px;
 margin:10px 0;
}
A default image size is now defined. Now we can setup sizes for big screens as well as mobile devices:


@media screen and (min-width:1200px){
 img {
  max-width:1000px;
 }
}

@media screen and (max-width:767px){  
 img {
     max-width:305px;
 } 
}

Limitations

Guess what? Internet Explorer (excepted the newly released IE9) doesn’t know anything about the CSS @media property. Which means that even on a big screen IE users will see the default layout, unless you use JS libraries.








References:
catswhocode.com
smashingmagazine.com

No comments:

Post a Comment